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JAYPEE JOURNALS
International Scientific Journals from Jaypee
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1.  Original Research
Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam
Jadab K Phukan, Gautom K Saharia, Rohini Goswami
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:11-15] [No of Hits : 645]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0003 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a major form of abnormal uterine bleeding, seen in at least 10% of all new outpatient department patients. The thyroid gland is known to play an important role in maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle.

Aims: To assess the thyroid hormone status in apparently euthyroid patients with DUB and to correlate it with incidence of DUB.

Materials and methods: Fifty DUB patients were selected on the basis of clinical history, examination, and relevant investigations. Equal numbers of age-matched women with normal menstrual cycle were taken as controls. Thyroid hormones, viz., thyroidstimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by using Microsoft Excel software.

Results: The most common menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia (48%) followed by metrorrhagia and polymenorrhea (14% each). Hypothyroidism was more prevalent among cases (85.7%) as compared with controls (14.3%). In patients with menorrhagia, 33.3% of patients had hypothyroidism.

Conclusion: Hypothyroidism occurs in DUB patients commonly. There is a need for mandatory thyroid screening in all patients with menstrual irregularities to help in early detection of the cause and treatment of DUB patients to avoid surgery.

Keywords: Assam, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Hypothyroidism, Menorrhagia.

How to cite this article: Phukan JK, Saharia GK, Goswami R. Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):11-15.

Source of support: MD/MS Thesis Grant of Rs 1,50,000/- (Rupees one lakh fifty thousand only) for students of North East region from the Department of Biotechnology under Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.

Conflict of interest: None

 
2.  Original Research
Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease
PK Patra, PK Khodiar, D Sahu, GK Sahu
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:1-5] [No of Hits : 567]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0001 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Changes in the level of various biochemical parameters play a significant role in the physiopathology of sickle cell disease (SCD). The aim of this study is to determine the level of urinary micoalbumin and plasma level of ascorbic acid and uric acid in subjects suffering from sickle cell anemia. A total of 30 subjects consisting of both males and females whose age range varied from 10 to 30 years were included in the study. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio invariably increased in all studied subjects as compared with the control subjects. The level of ascorbic acid in the plasma significantly declined in SCD subjects when compared with that of control subjects (p < 0.05). Also, the decrease in level of uric acid in plasma of SCD patients was significant as compared with the control subjects. Significant changes in these biochemical parameters thus could be used as reliable markers in nephropathy in sickle cell patients and thus in the management of the disease.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Microalbuminuria, Nephropathy, Sickle cell disease.

How to cite this article: Patra PK, Khodiar PK, Sahu D, Sahu GK. Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
3.  Original Research
Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Shilpa B Asegaonkar, Ishrat Kareem, Sunita Aghade, Avinash Pagdhune, Anand Thorat, Mangala S Borkar
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:6-10] [No of Hits : 535]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0002 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aims: To compare metabolic status of lean vs overweight/ obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and correlate biochemical parameters with anthropometric measures.

Materials and methods: A total of 100 T2DM patients were categorized as lean and overweight/obese according to body mass index (BMI); 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were selected. Anthropometric measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip (W:H) were recorded. Fasting blood samples were assayed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated by Friedewald’s formula and TG: HDL was measured as measure of insulin resistance (IR).

Results: Anthropometric measures of overall (BMI 31.65 ± 5.49, 20.34 ± 2.45 vs 22.29 ± 3.21) and visceral adiposity (WC 91.98 ± 6.8, 75.45 ± 4.34 vs 74.19 ± 3.98 and W:H 0.99 ± 0.12, 0.78 ± 0.21 vs 0.76 ± 0.32) were significantly higher in overweight/ obese (p < 0.05) compared with lean T2DM and controls. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA were significantly raised and HDL decreased in T2DM compared with those of controls. But much higher values were observed in overweight/obese than in lean group. Triglycerides: HDL was significantly higher in obese than in lean patients (4.66 ± 1.89 vs 7.91 ± 3.01), confirming significantly decreased insulin sensitivity among obese than nonobese diabetics. Positive correlation was observed between BMI, WC, W:H and TC, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL, while negative correlation was observed with HDL in obese group. Lean individuals with normal BMI, WC had deranged lipids with IR.

Conclusion: Lean and obese T2DM have dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is associated with overall and visceral adiposity in obese and not in lean T2DM individuals.

Keywords: Lean, Lipid profile, Nonesterified free fatty acids, Obese, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

How to cite this article: Asegaonkar SB, Kareem I, Aghade S, Pagdhune A, Thorat A, Borkar MS. Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):6-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
4.  Original Article
Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Bhaskar Shahbabu, Nandita Hazra, Sarvinder Singh
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:25-29] [No of Hits : 192]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0014 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: Thyroid disorders are one of the most common endocrine diseases in India. Thyroid disorders are more common in women than in men and contribute to significant morbidity. In this postiodization era, there is paucity of pan-Indian data of thyroid disorder status among adult nonpregnant women. This study was done to analyze the thyroid hormone levels in women of Jharkhand region, which is traditionally known to be an iodine-deficient area.

Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nonpregnant adult females in Ranchi area who were consuming iodized salt formed part of the study group. Clinical evaluation was done by a gynecologist pertaining to thyroid illness. Thyroid function tests encompassing triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroidstimulating hormone were carried out by quantitative enzyme immunoassay method. Thyroid status of the population was defined as per kit reference range.

Results: Subjects with age range 20 to 67 years were divided into three groups as per clinical status of thyroid disorder, viz. total, disease free, and control. A total of 19.6% had biochemical evidence of thyroid disorder and 82.4% were euthyroid as per reference ranges in kit literature. Out of hypothyroid subjects, 3.2% had clinical and 14.4% had subclinical hypothyroidism. In the study group, no subjects were detected to have overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism. Multiple comparison analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0, a statistical software package.

Discussion: This is the first study in Jharkhand area on nonpregnant adult female population that are getting iodine sufficient foods in an iodine-deficient region. The study showed high prevalence of thyroid disorders in the study group. Hypothyroidism, predominantly subclinical hypothyroidism, is prevalent among women in this region.

Keywords: Iodine sufficient, Nonpregnant adult female, Subclinical hypothyroidism, Thyroid disorders.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Shahbabu B, Hazra N, Singh S. Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):25-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
5.  Original Article
Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay
Jayesh Warade
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:1-4] [No of Hits : 173]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0009 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Jaundice is the visible manifestation of chemical bilirubinemia and is characterized by yellow discoloration of skin. In a pediatric emergency department, evaluation of jaundice includes a precise medical history, physical examination, and estimation of bilirubin by laboratory tests. Measurement of total serum bilirubin (TSB) by transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is interpreted according to the age (in hours) of the newborn infant. Studies have also indicated that the TcB determination is more accurate than visual estimation methods.

Aim: To compare BiliCare System against standard laboratory testing for bilirubin estimation.

Results: The coefficient of correlation was r = 0.7245, and the standard deviation between the mean values of TcB and TSB is ±0.55.

Conclusion: It is concluded from the study that there is good correlation between TcB measurement and laboratory estimation of total bilirubin levels. It is recommended that transcutaneous measurement can be used for initial screening of jaundice as well as monitoring of phototherapy in neonates.

Keywords: BiliCare, Bilirubin, Jaundice, Kernicterus, Transcutaneous.

How to cite this article: Warade J. Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
6.  Original Article
Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D
Mamta Gupta, Arijit Debnath, Sanjay Jain, Vandana Saini, Somosri Ray
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:42-48] [No of Hits : 165]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0018 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D in pregnancy has been reported to cause various maternal effects, i.e., hypocalcemia, subclinical myopathy, increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), cesarean sections, and fetal effects, i.e., neonatal tetany, hyperbilirubinemia congenital rickets, infantile rickets, etc. Only few Indian studies are available in this regard.

Objective: To estimate serum vitamin D levels in pregnant women, cord blood, and study fetomaternal outcomes.

Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 54 consecutive pregnant women and their newborn babies. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was estimated in all women at the time of admission in labor ward. They were followed up to delivery and 48 hours postpartum. Vitamin D was also estimated in cord blood collected during delivery. All results were recorded and analyzed statistically.

Results: The mean 25(OH)D level in pregnancy was 6.81 ± 7.38 ng/mL. The mean 25(OH)D level in their babies (cord blood) was 6.34 ± 7.05 ng/mL. There was very strong positive correlation between maternal and fetal serum 25(OH)D levels (p-value 0.001, r-value 0.9). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with obesity, PE, and GDM (p-value 0.001). Neonatal jaundice and tetany were also significantly associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.

Conclusion: Low levels of vitamin D have been observed in pregnant women and their newborn babies. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse fetomaternal outcomes. As there is a strong correlation of maternal and neonatal levels, supplementing vitamin D in a pregnant women might improve these adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: Cord blood vitamin D, Fetomaternal outcome, Hypovitaminosis D, Vitamin D status in pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Gupta M, Debnath A, Jain S, Saini V, Ray S. Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):42-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
7.  MEDICAL EDUCATION-ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Case-based Learning in Biochemistry: An Innovative Criterion-based Assessment Module for Effective Learning among MBBS Phase 1 Students in India
Vijayetha P Patil, Vidya S Patil, Shrirang P Kulkarni, Dhiraj J Trivedi, Vani C Axita, Rakesh T Muddaraddi, Praveen Kumar Shetty, Anil B Bargale, Pramod S Kamble, Deepti G Ingleshwar, AS Shilpasree
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:62-68] [No of Hits : 128]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0022 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The main focus of case-based learning (CBL) is to integrate basic science material with clinical science. Case-based learning may be designed and introduced along with traditional didactic lectures in a way that it creates interest, promotes better understanding, active participation, and selfdirected learning. The student should be motivated to become a life-long learner.

Intervention: We have formulated an innovative criterion-based module for implementation and evaluation of MBBS phase 1 students. This includes framing of a time schedule for distribution of teaching hours based on multiple teaching tools and module for conducting CBL sessions. This will be assessed by evaluation of student performance using a newly developed valid assessment tool.

Materials and methods: For the CBL sessions, 100 students of phase 1 MBBS course were included. They were divided into 10 groups of 10 students each. Ten clinical cases were selected for CBL sessions. Each student was given two cases for discussion. Pretest was conducted before and posttest after the CBL session. The session was conducted as planned in the module. The performance of the students was analyzed. Feedback from the students and teachers were taken and analyzed for its utility and effectiveness.

Results: The performance of the students showed drastic improvement after the CBL sessions (p < 0.0001); 85% of the students and 80% of the teachers agreed that CBL helps in deep learning and critical thinking; 84% of students and 73% teachers felt that CBL makes subject interesting with good retention of contents and reasoning ability for their future medical practice.

Conclusion: Our newly formulated assessment tool stands appropriate, which can be included in the present curriculum. Both the teachers and the students were satisfied with this kind of teaching method. This innovative teaching module and our newly formulated assessment tool proved to be very effective for learning biochemistry.

Keywords: Assessment tool, Biochemistry, Case-based learning, Critical thinking, Curriculum planning, Multiple teaching tools, Structured cases, Student feedback, Teacher’s reflections, Teaching module.

How to cite this article: Patil VP, Patil VS, Kulkarni SP, Trivedi DJ, Axita VC, Mudaraddi RT, Shetty P, Bargale AB, Kamble PS, Ingleshwar DG, Shilpasree AS. Case-based Learning in Biochemistry: An Innovative Criterion-based Assessment Module for Effective Learning among MBBS Phase 1 Students in India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):62-68.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
8.  Original Article
Does Prolonged Storage of Serum Samples alter the Lab Results?
Devika Tayal, Mrinal Gupta, Binita Goswami
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:30-33] [No of Hits : 120]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0015 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Background: Sample storage for prolonged periods can lead to alterations in routine biochemical parameters.

Aim: This study was undertaken to observe the biochemical changes on serum samples when they are stored for prolonged periods at -20°C on different routine biochemical parameters.

Results: Significant changes were observed in serum glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and potassium levels after 72 hours of storage, which further deteriorate in 3 months. Rest of the parameters did not show any significant alteration.

Conclusion: Prolonged storage of samples lead to alterations in the analyte concentration in serum. Serum glucose, AST, ALT, creatinine, and potassium levels should be estimated within 72 hours if prolonged storage is unavoidable. In conclusion, all the parameters should be assayed within 24 hours to avoid misinterpretation of results and better patient care.

Keywords: Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Biochemical parameters, Creatinine.

How to cite this article: Tayal D, Gupta M, Goswami B. Does Prolonged Storage of Serum Samples alter the Lab Results? Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):30-33.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
9.  Original Article
Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Reetika Pal, Nandita Hazra
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:17-21] [No of Hits : 112]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0012 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Aim: Maternal thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy are vital for the health of the mother as well as the developing child. Fetal growth is affected by maternal thyroid levels. Various physiological changes like alterations of thyroxine-binding globulins, human chorionic gonadotropin level, and changes in iodide metabolism affect maternal thyroid hormone levels. Therefore, reference intervals (RIs) for thyroid hormones in pregnant population require to be established separately from the general population.

Materials and methods: The RIs of serum triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in healthy pregnant women by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique after segregating them into three trimesters. This study was conducted in a 492-bedded zonal-level hospital. The reference population was chosen from a study population of pregnant women by strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The assays were done by the most-commonly used, economical ELISA method employing standard kits. Tests were done using accurate and precise methods with proper quality control measures.

Results: The RIs were calculated from the central 95% of distribution of total T3, total T4, and TSH values located between 2.5 and 97.5 percentile values. The 0.90 confidence intervals for the upper and lower reference limits were calculated. The values thus obtained were different from those provided by the manufacturer kit literature.

Conclusion: It is recommended to determine one’s own laboratory-specific, method-specific, trimester-wise RIs for maternal thyroid hormone status and use them for screening of pregnant women.

Keywords: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Laboratory research, Pregnancy, Reference interval, Thyroid hormones, Trimester specific.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Pal R, Hazra N. Specific Reference Intervals of Serum Triiodothyronine, Thyroxine, and Thyroid-stimulating Hormone in Normal Pregnant Indian Women as per Trimester. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):17-21.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
10.  Original Article
Novel Lipid Indices as a Better Marker of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Postmenopausal Women
Muruga Sirigere, S Meera
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:38-41] [No of Hits : 105]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0017 | FREE

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the major leading cause of mortality in men and women around the globe. The incidence of CVD increases with age in both the sexes, whereas it has been noted that there is a marked increase in risk among women after menopause. The hormonal changes associated with the menopause like low level of plasma estrogen and marked increase in follicle stimulating hormone levels exert a significant effect on metabolism of plasma lipids and lipoproteins leading to atherosclerosis, thereby increasing the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women.

Objectives: To study the lipid profile parameters and to calculate and compare the lipid indices with lipid profile parameters in pre- and postmenopausal women.

Materials and methods: The study group included 90 women comprising 45 postmenopausal (cases) and 45 premenopausal (control) women. To estimate lipid profile, enzymatic method was used and for calculation of lipid indices appropriate formula was used.

Results: Altered lipid profile was observed in postmenopausal women, but it was not statistically significant. Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Castelli’s risk index-I, atherogenic coefficient, and nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly increased in postmenopausal women compared with premenopausal women, but there was no significant increase in Castelli’s risk index-II.

Conclusion: Lipid indices may be considered as a better and cost-effective tool in assessing the risk of CVD in postmenopausal women.

Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Lipid indices, Lipid profile, Postmenopause.

How to cite this article: Sirigere M, Meera S. Novel Lipid Indices as a Better Marker of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Postmenopausal Women. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):38-41.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

 
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