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1.  Original Article
A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile in Obese and Nonobese Men attending Master Health Checkup
S Vinod Babu, Anusha R Jagadeesan, Jothimalar Ramalingam
[Year:2017] [Month:July-December] [Volume:21 ] [Number:2] [Pages:102] [Pages No:73-75] [No of Hits : 596]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0024 | FREE


Introduction: Obesity is emerging as an epidemic worldwide. Obesity is associated with a number of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular abnormalities, anemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and psychosocial abnormalities.

Aim: This study aims at comparing the lipid profile levels of obese and nonobese men.

Materials and methods: This was a case-control study conducted at a tertiary care center. Totally, 80 men in the age group of 20 to 47 years attending the master health checkup were included in the study, out of which 40 men with normal body mass index (BMI) of 18 to 25 belonged to group I and 40 men with increased BMI of 30 and above belonged to group II. Lipid profile parameters, such as triglycerides (TGLs), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were estimated in them. The data were statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 15.0.

Results: Statistically significant difference was found in the total cholesterol levels with a p-value of 0.040 while the difference in LDL cholesterol was statistically highly significant with a p-value of 0.040.

Conclusion: Among lipid profile parameters, only total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol showed significant difference between the obese and nonobese individuals. However, the other parameters like HDL cholesterol and TGLs did not show any significant difference.

Keywords: Body mass index, Lipid profile parameters, Lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol, Obese, Total cholesterol.

How to cite this article: Babu SV, Jagadeesan AR, Ramalingam J. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile in Obese and Nonobese Men attending Master Health Checkup. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(2):73-75.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

2.  Original Article
Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India
Barun K Chakrabarty, Binay Mitra, Bhaskar Shahbabu, Nandita Hazra, Sarvinder Singh
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:25-29] [No of Hits : 564]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0014 | FREE


Aim: Thyroid disorders are one of the most common endocrine diseases in India. Thyroid disorders are more common in women than in men and contribute to significant morbidity. In this postiodization era, there is paucity of pan-Indian data of thyroid disorder status among adult nonpregnant women. This study was done to analyze the thyroid hormone levels in women of Jharkhand region, which is traditionally known to be an iodine-deficient area.

Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nonpregnant adult females in Ranchi area who were consuming iodized salt formed part of the study group. Clinical evaluation was done by a gynecologist pertaining to thyroid illness. Thyroid function tests encompassing triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and thyroidstimulating hormone were carried out by quantitative enzyme immunoassay method. Thyroid status of the population was defined as per kit reference range.

Results: Subjects with age range 20 to 67 years were divided into three groups as per clinical status of thyroid disorder, viz. total, disease free, and control. A total of 19.6% had biochemical evidence of thyroid disorder and 82.4% were euthyroid as per reference ranges in kit literature. Out of hypothyroid subjects, 3.2% had clinical and 14.4% had subclinical hypothyroidism. In the study group, no subjects were detected to have overt or subclinical hyperthyroidism. Multiple comparison analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0, a statistical software package.

Discussion: This is the first study in Jharkhand area on nonpregnant adult female population that are getting iodine sufficient foods in an iodine-deficient region. The study showed high prevalence of thyroid disorders in the study group. Hypothyroidism, predominantly subclinical hypothyroidism, is prevalent among women in this region.

Keywords: Iodine sufficient, Nonpregnant adult female, Subclinical hypothyroidism, Thyroid disorders.

How to cite this article: Chakrabarty BK, Mitra B, Shahbabu B, Hazra N, Singh S. Thyroid Function Status in Indian Adult Nonpregnant Females in Ranchi, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):25-29.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

3.  Original Article
Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay
Jayesh Warade
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:1-4] [No of Hits : 520]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0009 | FREE


Introduction: Jaundice is the visible manifestation of chemical bilirubinemia and is characterized by yellow discoloration of skin. In a pediatric emergency department, evaluation of jaundice includes a precise medical history, physical examination, and estimation of bilirubin by laboratory tests. Measurement of total serum bilirubin (TSB) by transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) is interpreted according to the age (in hours) of the newborn infant. Studies have also indicated that the TcB determination is more accurate than visual estimation methods.

Aim: To compare BiliCare System against standard laboratory testing for bilirubin estimation.

Results: The coefficient of correlation was r = 0.7245, and the standard deviation between the mean values of TcB and TSB is ±0.55.

Conclusion: It is concluded from the study that there is good correlation between TcB measurement and laboratory estimation of total bilirubin levels. It is recommended that transcutaneous measurement can be used for initial screening of jaundice as well as monitoring of phototherapy in neonates.

Keywords: BiliCare, Bilirubin, Jaundice, Kernicterus, Transcutaneous.

How to cite this article: Warade J. Comparison of BiliCare Transcutaneous Bilirubinometer with Standard Laboratory Assay. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):1-4.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

4.  Original Article
Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D
Mamta Gupta, Arijit Debnath, Sanjay Jain, Vandana Saini, Somosri Ray
[Year:2017] [Month:January-June] [Volume:21 ] [Number:1] [Pages:71] [Pages No:42-48] [No of Hits : 504]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0018 | FREE


Introduction: Hypovitaminosis D in pregnancy has been reported to cause various maternal effects, i.e., hypocalcemia, subclinical myopathy, increased risk of preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), cesarean sections, and fetal effects, i.e., neonatal tetany, hyperbilirubinemia congenital rickets, infantile rickets, etc. Only few Indian studies are available in this regard.

Objective: To estimate serum vitamin D levels in pregnant women, cord blood, and study fetomaternal outcomes.

Materials and methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on 54 consecutive pregnant women and their newborn babies. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level was estimated in all women at the time of admission in labor ward. They were followed up to delivery and 48 hours postpartum. Vitamin D was also estimated in cord blood collected during delivery. All results were recorded and analyzed statistically.

Results: The mean 25(OH)D level in pregnancy was 6.81 ± 7.38 ng/mL. The mean 25(OH)D level in their babies (cord blood) was 6.34 ± 7.05 ng/mL. There was very strong positive correlation between maternal and fetal serum 25(OH)D levels (p-value 0.001, r-value 0.9). Vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with obesity, PE, and GDM (p-value 0.001). Neonatal jaundice and tetany were also significantly associated with severe vitamin D deficiency.

Conclusion: Low levels of vitamin D have been observed in pregnant women and their newborn babies. Hypovitaminosis D has been associated with adverse fetomaternal outcomes. As there is a strong correlation of maternal and neonatal levels, supplementing vitamin D in a pregnant women might improve these adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: Cord blood vitamin D, Fetomaternal outcome, Hypovitaminosis D, Vitamin D status in pregnancy.

How to cite this article: Gupta M, Debnath A, Jain S, Saini V, Ray S. Vitamin D Status in Pregnancy: Fetomaternal Outcome and Correlation with Cord Blood Vitamin D. Indian J Med Biochem 2017;21(1):42-48.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

5.  Original Research
Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam
Jadab K Phukan, Gautom K Saharia, Rohini Goswami
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:11-15] [No of Hits : 939]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0003 | FREE


Background: Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is a major form of abnormal uterine bleeding, seen in at least 10% of all new outpatient department patients. The thyroid gland is known to play an important role in maintaining a healthy menstrual cycle.

Aims: To assess the thyroid hormone status in apparently euthyroid patients with DUB and to correlate it with incidence of DUB.

Materials and methods: Fifty DUB patients were selected on the basis of clinical history, examination, and relevant investigations. Equal numbers of age-matched women with normal menstrual cycle were taken as controls. Thyroid hormones, viz., thyroidstimulating hormone, total triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine, were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by using Microsoft Excel software.

Results: The most common menstrual abnormality was menorrhagia (48%) followed by metrorrhagia and polymenorrhea (14% each). Hypothyroidism was more prevalent among cases (85.7%) as compared with controls (14.3%). In patients with menorrhagia, 33.3% of patients had hypothyroidism.

Conclusion: Hypothyroidism occurs in DUB patients commonly. There is a need for mandatory thyroid screening in all patients with menstrual irregularities to help in early detection of the cause and treatment of DUB patients to avoid surgery.

Keywords: Assam, Dysfunctional uterine bleeding, Hypothyroidism, Menorrhagia.

How to cite this article: Phukan JK, Saharia GK, Goswami R. Thyroid Status in Patients with Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Assam. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):11-15.

Source of support: MD/MS Thesis Grant of Rs 1,50,000/- (Rupees one lakh fifty thousand only) for students of North East region from the Department of Biotechnology under Ministry of Science and Technology, Government of India.

Conflict of interest: None

6.  Original Research
Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients
Shilpa B Asegaonkar, Ishrat Kareem, Sunita Aghade, Avinash Pagdhune, Anand Thorat, Mangala S Borkar
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:6-10] [No of Hits : 776]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0002 | FREE


Aims: To compare metabolic status of lean vs overweight/ obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and correlate biochemical parameters with anthropometric measures.

Materials and methods: A total of 100 T2DM patients were categorized as lean and overweight/obese according to body mass index (BMI); 50 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were selected. Anthropometric measures of BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist:hip (W:H) were recorded. Fasting blood samples were assayed for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFA). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was calculated by Friedewald’s formula and TG: HDL was measured as measure of insulin resistance (IR).

Results: Anthropometric measures of overall (BMI 31.65 ± 5.49, 20.34 ± 2.45 vs 22.29 ± 3.21) and visceral adiposity (WC 91.98 ± 6.8, 75.45 ± 4.34 vs 74.19 ± 3.98 and W:H 0.99 ± 0.12, 0.78 ± 0.21 vs 0.76 ± 0.32) were significantly higher in overweight/ obese (p < 0.05) compared with lean T2DM and controls. Total cholesterol, TG, LDL, and NEFA were significantly raised and HDL decreased in T2DM compared with those of controls. But much higher values were observed in overweight/obese than in lean group. Triglycerides: HDL was significantly higher in obese than in lean patients (4.66 ± 1.89 vs 7.91 ± 3.01), confirming significantly decreased insulin sensitivity among obese than nonobese diabetics. Positive correlation was observed between BMI, WC, W:H and TC, TG, LDL, NEFA, and TG:HDL, while negative correlation was observed with HDL in obese group. Lean individuals with normal BMI, WC had deranged lipids with IR.

Conclusion: Lean and obese T2DM have dyslipidemia and IR. Poor metabolic profile is associated with overall and visceral adiposity in obese and not in lean T2DM individuals.

Keywords: Lean, Lipid profile, Nonesterified free fatty acids, Obese, Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

How to cite this article: Asegaonkar SB, Kareem I, Aghade S, Pagdhune A, Thorat A, Borkar MS. Metabolic Status of Lean, Overweight, and Obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):6-10.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

7.  Original Research
Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease
PK Patra, PK Khodiar, D Sahu, GK Sahu
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:1-5] [No of Hits : 696]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0001 | FREE


Changes in the level of various biochemical parameters play a significant role in the physiopathology of sickle cell disease (SCD). The aim of this study is to determine the level of urinary micoalbumin and plasma level of ascorbic acid and uric acid in subjects suffering from sickle cell anemia. A total of 30 subjects consisting of both males and females whose age range varied from 10 to 30 years were included in the study. The urinary albumin/creatinine ratio invariably increased in all studied subjects as compared with the control subjects. The level of ascorbic acid in the plasma significantly declined in SCD subjects when compared with that of control subjects (p < 0.05). Also, the decrease in level of uric acid in plasma of SCD patients was significant as compared with the control subjects. Significant changes in these biochemical parameters thus could be used as reliable markers in nephropathy in sickle cell patients and thus in the management of the disease.

Keywords: Ascorbic acid, Microalbuminuria, Nephropathy, Sickle cell disease.

How to cite this article: Patra PK, Khodiar PK, Sahu D, Sahu GK. Alterations in Urinary Microalbumin and Serum Antioxidants in Sickle Cell Disease. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):1-5.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

8.  Original Research
Role of Hormones in Unexplained Infertility
Dipti C Ekka, Anju Jain, Manju Puri
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:34-37] [No of Hits : 669]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0007 | FREE


Unexplained infertility is a term applied to an infertile couple whose standard infertility investigations and workup are normal. The aim of the study is to assess the role of hormones in women with unexplained infertility. The female reproductive system is regulated by a balanced hormonal interaction between the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and ovaries. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are important for ovulation and stimulation of secretion of estradiol and progesterone from the ovaries. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is an important marker to predict the ovarian reserve. The primary function of the ovary is the production of a mature and viable oocyte capable of fertilization, embryo development, and implantation. Fifty women diagnosed with unexplained infertility were enrolled as cases. These were age matched with 50 healthy fertile women volunteers. Body mass index (BMI) was found to be significantly higher in women with unexplained infertility. Serum FSH, LH, and estradiol were significantly higher in cases. LH:FSH ratio and serum AMH were significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. To conclude, serum AMH, FSH, and LH:FSH ratio indicated poor ovarian reserve in women with unexplained infertility.

Keywords: Hormones, Role, Unexplained infertility.

How to cite this article: Ekka DC, Jain A, Puri M. Role of Hormones in Unexplained Infertility. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):34-37.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

9.  Original Research
Cystatin C is a Better Marker of Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Pregnancies
Anjana Singh, Mamta Gupta, Rajeev Ranjan, Vandana Saini, SK Gupta
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:21-27] [No of Hits : 650]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0005 | FREE


Background: Glomerular endotheliosis is an essential component in the pathophysiology of gestational hypertension (GH) and preeclampsia (PE) which results in renal dysfunction. This is not always detected by routine renal function tests, such as serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid. Cystatin C, an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor, is completely absorbed by renal tubules and has been shown to be an ideal marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which needs to be evaluated in assessing renal dysfunction occurring in GH and PE.

Aims: The present study is designed to evaluate serum cystatin C levels in normal pregnancy, GH, and PE and compare its efficacy with traditional renal function tests.

Materials and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, 75 subjects enrolled, comprised of 25 subjects each of normal pregnancy, GH, and PE. Serum cystatin C, blood urea, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, and urinary protein/creatinine ratio were estimated in all subjects prior to delivery.

Results: All renal parameters including cystatin C were significantly raised in GH and PE compared with control group. However, only serum cystatin C level (and no other renal parameters) was significantly higher in PE group compared with GH group. Area under the curve for cystatin C was maximum (0.917) compared with other parameters. Cystatin C had a higher sensitivity and specificity than other conventional markers.

Conclusion: Serum cystatin C is a better marker of renal dysfunction in hypertensive pregnancies.

Keywords: Cystatin C, Gestational hypertension, Hypertensive pregnancies, Preeclampsia, Renal dysfunction.

How to cite this article: Singh A, Gupta M, Ranjan R, Saini V, Gupta SK. Cystatin C is a Better Marker of Renal Dysfunction in Hypertensive Pregnancies. Indian J Med Biochem 2016; 20(1):21-27.

Source of support: The study was done by institutional funding.

Conflict of interest: None.

10.  Original Research
Assessing Status of Iodine Nutrition in Union Territory of Chandigarh, India
Neeraj Agarwal, Jasbinder Kaur, Jaswinder Kaur, Seema Gupta, Shivani Jaswal, Harjeet Kaur, HM Swami
[Year:2016] [Month:January-June] [Volume:20 ] [Number:1] [Pages:42] [Pages No:38-41] [No of Hits : 641]
Full Text PDF | Abstract | DOI : 10.5005/jp-journals-10054-0008 | FREE


Iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) constitute a major public health problem in India. Goiter occurring in a large fraction of population (> 10%) is said to be due to iodine deficiency rather than any other cause. A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Union Territory of Chandigarh with the aim to track the elimination of IDD to determine the iodine status of school children unexamined for goiter status and excretion median urinary iodine concentration. Goiter was assessed by standard palpation technique in 6,517 school children, aged 6 to 12 years, selected through 30 cluster sampling methods. Spot urine samples of 823 children were collected for estimation of urinary iodine using modified method of Sandell and Kolthoff. Household salt samples of the 548 selected children from schools were analyzed for its iodine content by standard iodometric titration method. The overall prevalence of goiter was found to be 14.2% among the children examined. The median urinary iodine excretion (UIE) was 199 g/L. About 71.2% of the salt samples were adequately iodized, having iodine content of > 15 ppm. Since UIE reflects recent iodine nutrition at the time of measurement and thyroid size shows iodine nutrition over months or years, it can be said that this region is in transition phase from iodine-deficient to iodinesufficient territory.

Keywords: Chandigarh, Goiter prevalence, Iodine deficiency disorders, Salt iodization, Urinary iodine.

How to cite this article: Agarwal N, Kaur J, Kaur J, Gupta S, Jaswal S, Kaur H, Swami HM. Assessing Status of Iodine Nutrition in Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. Indian J Med Biochem 2016;20(1):38-41.

Source of support: Nil

Conflict of interest: None

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